Swan Sugarbush

Scientific Name
Protea witzenbergiana E.Phillips
Higher Classification
Common Names
Swan Sugarbush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Least Concern
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
Protea witzenbergiana is a locally common species in the mountains of the Western Cape, with an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 4921 km² and area of occupancy (AOO) of 532 km². Although there are alien invasive plants in its habitat, it is not yet in danger of extinction. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
This species is endemic to the mountains of the Western Cape Province, South Africa, where it occurs from the Cederberg to the Hex River and Bokkerivier mountains.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
South Hex Sandstone Fynbos, North Hex Sandstone Fynbos, Winterhoek Sandstone Fynbos, Cederberg Sandstone Fynbos, Matjiesfontein Quartzite Fynbos, Swartruggens Quartzite Fynbos
It is found in montane fynbos, 700-1800 m. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Wind-dispersed seeds are stored in fire-resistant inflorescences, and released after fires. It is pollinated by birds.
At least 6% of this species' habitat is irreversibly modified due to crop cultivation. Currently, it is potentially threatened by competition from alien invasive plants which are present at low densities throughout its range.

This species is locally common over a wide range of habitats. Subpopulations are large, and most of these are in nature reserves. The populations is not suspected to be declining.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Protea witzenbergiana E.PhillipsLeast Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Manning, J.C. and Goldblatt, P. 2012. Plants of the Greater Cape Floristic Region 1: The Core Cape Flora. Strelitzia 29. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, T. 2001. Sasol Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of southern Africa. (2nd ed.). Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg, Cape Town.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2019. Protea witzenbergiana E.Phillips. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version . Accessed on 2024/04/17

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Distribution map

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