King Protea

Taxonomy
Scientific Name
Protea cynaroides (L.) L.
Higher Classification
Dicotyledons
Family
PROTEACEAE
Common Names
Aprilprotea (a), Bergsuikerkan (a), Giant Protea (e), Grootsuikerkan (a), King Protea (e), Koningprotea (a), Mountain Rose (e), Reuseprotea (a), Suikerkan (a), Waterprotea (a)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Least Concern
Assessment Date
2019/05/27
Assessor(s)
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
Justification
Protea cynaroides is widespread, common and not in danger of extinction.
Distribution
Endemism
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Eastern Cape, Western Cape
Range
Protea cynaroides is widespread across the Cape Floristic Region, from the Gifberg near Vanrhynsdorp southwards to the Cape Peninsula, and eastwards to the Kaprivier Mountains north-east of Grahamstown.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Terrestrial
Major habitats
Elim Ferricrete Fynbos, Northern Inland Shale Band Vegetation, Elgin Shale Fynbos, Cape Winelands Shale Fynbos, Breede Shale Fynbos, Peninsula Shale Fynbos, Suurberg Shale Fynbos, Garden Route Granite Fynbos, Peninsula Granite Fynbos, Garden Route Shale Fynbos, Potberg Ferricrete Fynbos, Suurberg Quartzite Fynbos, Albertinia Sand Fynbos, Agulhas Sand Fynbos, Hangklip Sand Fynbos, Knysna Sand Fynbos, Swellendam Silcrete Fynbos, Eastern Coastal Shale Band Vegetation, Central Coastal Shale Band Vegetation, Western Coastal Shale Band Vegetation, Boland Granite Fynbos, North Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos, South Hex Sandstone Fynbos, North Hex Sandstone Fynbos, Piketberg Sandstone Fynbos, Winterhoek Sandstone Fynbos, Cederberg Sandstone Fynbos, Algoa Sandstone Fynbos, Kouga Grassy Sandstone Fynbos, Kouga Sandstone Fynbos, Greyton Shale Fynbos, South Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos, Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos, Potberg Sandstone Fynbos, South Langeberg Sandstone Fynbos, North Langeberg Sandstone Fynbos, South Sonderend Sandstone Fynbos, North Sonderend Sandstone Fynbos, Overberg Sandstone Fynbos, Kogelberg Sandstone Fynbos, Hawequas Sandstone Fynbos, Tsitsikamma Sandstone Fynbos
Description
It occurs in variable habitat in montane fynbos, but typically prefers rocky areas, 0-1700 m. It is a long-lived species, and survives fires by resprouting from underground boles or rootstocks. Wind-dispersed seeds are stored in fire-resistant inflorescences, and released after fires. It is pollinated by birds.
Threats
The King Protea is extensively cultivated within its habitat and there is probably significant genetic contamination by extensive planting of protea orchards adjacent natural populations without regard to genotype or pollen movement.
Population

It is common across its range, but typically occurs as scattered plants. More than 300 subpopulations have been recorded. The population is not suspected to be declining.


Population trend
Stable
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Protea cynaroides (L.) L.Least Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)
Bibliography

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.


Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.


Rebelo, T. 2001. Sasol Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of southern Africa. (2nd ed.). Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg, Cape Town.


Citation
Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2019. Protea cynaroides (L.) L. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2020/07/03

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Distribution map

© D. Turner

© D. Turner

© S. Falanga

© C. Merry

© C. Merry

© C. Merry

© C. Merry

© A. Marais

© Outramps

© Outramps

© I. Ebrahim


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