Kleinmond Sugarbush

Scientific Name
Protea angustata R.Br.
Higher Classification
Common Names
Kleinmond Sugarbush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable A4c; C1
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
Protea angustata is known from fewer than 5000 mature individuals. A population reduction of 33-39%, is projected to be met by 2070, over a period of less than three generations for this long-lived resprouter (generation length 50-100 years), which includes two generations in the past and one generation projected into the future. This speciesí habitat is threatened by ongoing degradation by alien invasive plants. However, as a resprouter it has high persistence in isolated remnants. Some subpopulations are under imminent threat of urban expansion in Pringle Bay, Onrus and Kleinmond. It therefore qualifies for listing as Vulnerable under criteria A and C.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
This species is endemic to the Western Cape Province of South Africa, occurring on the Kogelberg and Groenland to Kleinrivier Mountains.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Overberg Sandstone Fynbos, Kogelberg Sandstone Fynbos, Elgin Shale Fynbos, Elim Ferricrete Fynbos, Hangklip Sand Fynbos, Western Coastal Shale Band Vegetation
It grows on coastal flats and slopes, on sandy and clay soils, 0-600 m. It is a long-lived species, and survives fires by resprouting from underground stems. Wind-dispersed seeds are stored in fire-resistant inflorescences, and released after fires. It is pollinated by birds and insects.
About 26% of this species' habitat is irreversibly modified, and loss continues. The main cause of habitat loss are urban developments (coastal holiday housing) and recreation (golf courses). Subpopulations outside of protected areas remain in remnants of natural vegetation and are subjected to inappropriate fire management, particularly fire exclusion, which leads to reduced recruitment, as this species is dependent of fires to stimulate seed release and germination. It is further severely threatened by competition from dense infestations of alien invasive plants in some parts of the range. The subpopulation at Witteklip is at risk of hybridization with planted plants as it borders protea plantations.

Protea angustata is known from many, isolated, small subpopulations of a few scattered individuals. The largest subpopulation occurs in Kleinmond where several hundred plants are spread over 3 km. The population has declined in the past due to urban development at Pringle Bay, Onrus, and Kleinmond. A population reduction of 33-39% is projected to be met by 2119, over a period of less than three generations for this long-lived resprouter (generation length 50-100 years), which includes two generations in the past and one generation projected into the future. It is estimated that there are fewer than 5000 plants in the population. Continuing decline is inferred from ongoing competition with alien invasive plants.

Population trend
It is conserved at Brodie Link, Kleinmond, Fernkloof, Waterval Nature Reserves.
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Protea angustata R.Br.EN C1Raimondo et al. (2009)
Protea angustata R.Br.Vulnerable Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Protea angustata R.Br.Vulnerable Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Manning, J.C. and Goldblatt, P. 2012. Plants of the Greater Cape Floristic Region 1: The Core Cape Flora. Strelitzia 29. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, T. 2001. Sasol Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of southern Africa. (2nd ed.). Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg, Cape Town.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2020. Protea angustata R.Br. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version . Accessed on 2024/04/17

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Distribution map

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