Kraaifontein Spiderhead

Scientific Name
Serruria furcellata R.Br.
Higher Classification
Serruria diffusa R.Br.
Common Names
Kraaifontein Spiderhead (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered A2c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
Population estimated to have declined by nearly 100% in the past 100 years due to alien plant invasion, invasive alien ants, bush clearing, mowing, urban and industrial expansion, inappropriate fire management, increased mole rat activity and trampling, and only one plant is known to remain in the wild. Generation length >100 years.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Cape Flats.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Boland Granite Fynbos, Cape Flats Sand Fynbos
Sandy flats, 0-100 m. It is a long-lived species, and survives fires by resprouting from underground boles or rootstocks. Seeds are relased after ripening, and dispersed by ants to their underground nests, where they are protected from predation and fire. It is pollinated by insects.
Brush-cutting and over-burning are the main threats. Other threats include alien invasive species (Acacia), urban expansion (Cape Town, industrial and suburban), squatter camps on state land, inappropriate urban fire management, mowing (common), trampling, alien invasive ants, and increased Mole Rat activity associated with disturbance.
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Serruria furcellata R.Br.CR A2c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)c(iv); C1+2a(i,ii)b; DRaimondo et al. (2009)
Serruria furcellata R.Br.Endangered Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Serruria furcellata R.Br.Endangered Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2006. Serruria furcellata R.Br. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2023/12/01

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Distribution map

© C. Paterson-Jones

© I. Ebrahim

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