Jozini Cycad

Scientific Name
Encephalartos senticosus Vorster
Higher Classification
Common Names
Broodboom (a), Cycad (e), Ijubane (z), Isidwaba-somkhovu (z), Isigqiki-semkhovu (z), Isigqiki-somkhovu (z), Jozini Cycad (e), Lebombo Cycad (e), Lebombo-broodboom (a)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable A2ace; C1
Assessment Date
J.D. Bosenberg
Estimated to have declined by at least 30% in the last 90 years (generation length estimated to be 30 years) as a result of harvesting for medicinal and horticultural purposes. Between 5000 and 10 000 mature individuals remain in the wild and decline is projected to continue by at least 10% in three generations.
Not endemic to South Africa
Provincial distribution
Lebombo Mountains, northern KwaZulu-Natal and Swaziland, and adjacent areas in Mozambique.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Southern Lebombo Bushveld
Rocky slopes and cliffs in dry shrubland.
This species is primarily threatened due to poaching of plants from the wild.

Based on repeat photographs, E. senticosus has declined by >30% at least in parts of its range during the past 60 years. The remaining population is estimated to be between 5 000 and 10 000 mature individuals and is projected to continue to decline by at least 10% within three generations

Population trend
Plants are protected in two provincial nature reserves in KwaZulu-Natal.
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Encephalartos senticosus VorsterVU A2acdRaimondo et al. (2009)
Encephalartos senticosus VorsterVU B1B2abcdScott-Shaw (1999)
Encephalartos senticosus VorsterRare Hilton-Taylor (1996)

Boon, R. 2010. Pooley's Trees of eastern South Africa. Flora and Fauna Publications Trust, Durban.

Donaldson, J.S. 2003. Cycads. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Cycad Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland; Cambridge, UK.

Grobbelaar, N. 2003. Cycads. With special reference to the southern African species. (2nd ed.). Nat Grobbelaar, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red Data List of southern African plants. 1. Corrections and additions. Bothalia 26(2):177-182.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Scott-Shaw, C.R. 1999. Rare and threatened plants of KwaZulu-Natal and neighbouring regions. KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Service, Pietermaritzburg.

Bosenberg, J.D. 2009. Encephalartos senticosus Vorster. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2021/09/19

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Distribution map

© S.P. Fourie

© J.S. Donaldson

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